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for intra archetype trade and was based on
United Nations Comtrade database for 2018.
268 The sorting costs were prorated for
plastics such that the sorting costs account
for only the costs attributable to plastic waste
and are therefore higher than the sorting of
other waste streams, such as organic waste.
Allocation was done to reflect the relatively
higher volume-to-weight ratio that plastic
occupies in a collection truck.
269 Informal collection and sorting were
considered as one process that occurs at the
same time.
270 The Pew Charitable Trusts assumed no
informal collection or dumpsite collection
in rural archetypes. This was based on
input from the expert panel who said there
wasn't enough value/density in the rural
waste stream for waste pickers to profit from
collection.
271 The informal collection and sorting
costs are the sum of the capital expenditure
and the operating expenditure of informal
collection and sorting processes. Capital
expenditure was calculated as: capital
expenditures - average annual CAPEX per T,
based on total asset cost, capacity, and asset
duration, without accounting for financing
costs or discounting [Annual CAPEX = Total
CAPEX ÷ Asset Capacity ÷ Asset Duration].
Operating expenditure was calculated as:
Opex: annual operational expenditures; these
include labor, energy, maintenance costs;
calculated on a per tonne (metric ton) basis.
272 Net cost per tonne of incineration was
calculated using incineration revenues that
account for the sale price of the energy
generated, based on Kaza et al., 2018, What
a Waste 2.0: A Global Snapshot of Solid
Waste Management to 2050, World Bank
Publications, Washington D.C.; and expert
panel consensus and incineration costs
based on expert panel consensus on data
from actual plants. The costs reflect the same
operating, safety, and environment standards
across all archetypes.
273 Total landfills costs were calculated
based on World Bank data and Eunomia
data. The costs reflect the capital
expenditures and annualised operating
expenditures of engineered landfills.
274 Net cost per tonne of closed-loop
recycling was calculated using recyclate
sale prices for different recyclates based on
a composition of high-value plastics (PET,
HDPE, and PP) and costs that represent
the sum of the capital expenditure and
the operating expenditure of closed-loop
recycling processes. Both capital and
operating expenditures for closed-loop
recycling plants were based on the experience
and knowledge of an expert panel and
confirmed through interviews. The cost of the
recyclate sale process was assumed to be a
wash and all recycled waste was assumed to
be sold.
275 Net cost per tonne of open-loop recycling
was calculated using recyclate sale prices for
different recyclates based on a composition of
high-value plastics (PET, HDPE, and PP) and
costs that represent the sum of the capital
expenditure and the operating expenditure of
open-loop recycling processes. Both capital
and operating expenditures for open-loop
recycling plants were based on the experience
and knowledge of an expert panel and
confirmed through interviews. The cost of the
recyclate sale process was assumed to be a
wash and all recycled waste was assumed to
be sold.
276 Geyer, R., Jambeck, J.R. and Law,
L.L., (2017) " Production, use, and fate of all
plastics ever made " , Science Advances, 3(7).
277 Plastics Europe, 2020. Plastics - the
Facts 2020: An analysis of European
plastics production, demand and waste
data.
278 For simplicity we only include the cost
of the first waste management stage for the
plastic produced in 2019 (for example, we
don't include any costs that recycled plastic
incurs after it is recycled used and becomes
waste again).
279 Costanza, R. et al. (2014) " Changes
in the global value of ecosystem services " ,
Global Environmental Change, 26(1), pp
152-158.
280 Costanza, R. et al. (1997) " The value of
the world's ecosystem services and natural
capital " , Nature, pp 253-260..
281 Beaumont N.J. et al. (2019) " Global
ecological, social and economic impacts of
marine plastic " , Marine Pollution Bulletin,
142, pp 189-195.
282 Beaumont N.J. et al. (2019) " Global
ecological, social and economic impacts of
marine plastic " , Marine Pollution Bulletin,
142, pp 189-195.
283 Beaumont N.J. et al. (2019) used the
estimate of 4.8-12.7 million metric tonnes
of plastic entering the ocean per year
provided in Jambeck, J.R. et al. (2015) and
the figure of 4.2 million tonnes annually in
2013 provided in Jang, Y.C. et al. (2015)
to estimate 75 million tonnes in 2011, a
reduction of 11 tonnes from the 2013 figure.
Beaumont N.J. et al. (2019) rounded the
estimates to try and increase transparency
that the figures applied were estimates, not
exact numbers.
284 Beaumont N.J. et al. (2019) used the
figure of 150 million metric tonnes in 2015
included in McKinsey, (2015). Stemming the
Tide: Land-based Strategies for a Plasticfree
Ocean which was considered to be an
underestimate. They therefore assumed it
was reasonable to use it as an upper bound
estimate for 2011.
285 Drupp, M.A. et al. (2018) " Discounting
Disentangled " , American Economic Journal:
Economic Policy, 10(4), pp 109-34.
286 Plastics Europe, 2020. Plastics - the
Facts 2020: An analysis of European
plastics production, demand and waste
data.
287 Geyer, R., Jambeck, J.R. and Law,
L.L., (2017) " Production, use, and fate of all
plastics ever made " , Science Advances, 3(7).
288 Out of the approximately 20 potential
primary microplastic sources, the Pew
Charitable Trusts modelled four main
sources representing an estimated 75-85%
of microplastic pollution: tire abrasion
(TWP), pellet loss, textile microfibers and
microplastic ingredients in PCP, including
the full microsized spectrum of ingredients.
289 The Pew Charitable Trusts and
SYSTEMIQ, 2019. Breaking the Plastic
Wave.
290 Boucher, J. and Damien, F. (2017)
" Primary Microplastics in the Oceans: A
Global Evaluation of Sources. " IUCN.
291 Arcadis, 2012. Economic assessment of
policy measures for the implementation of
the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
292 Geyer, R., Jambeck, J.R. and Law,
L.L., (2017) " Production, use, and fate of all
plastics ever made " , Science Advances, 3(7).
293 Beaumont N.J. et al. (2019) " Global
ecological, social and economic impacts of
marine plastic " , Marine Pollution Bulletin,
142, pp 189-195.
294 The Pew Charitable Trusts and
SYSTEMIQ, 2019. Breaking the Plastic
Wave.
295 This is based on estimated tonnes of
lost fishing gear leaking annually as 0.6Mt
as per Boucher, J. and Damien, F. (2017)
" Primary Microplastics in the Oceans: A
Global Evaluation of Sources. " IUCN. and
the estimated proportion of at-sea sources
of plastic leakage accounted for by fishing
as 65% as per Arcadis, 2012. Economic
assessment of policy measures for the
implementation of the Marine Strategy
Framework Directive.
296 Schwarz, A.E et al. (2019) " Sources,
transport and accumulation of different types
of plastic litter in aquatic environments: A
review study. " Marine Pollution Bulletin,
143, pp92-100.
297 Zheng J. and Suh, S. (2019) " Strategies
to reduce the global carbon footprint of
plastics " , Nature Climate Change, 9, pp 374378.
298
Zheng J. and Suh, S. (2019) " Strategies
to reduce the global carbon footprint of
plastics " , Nature Climate Change, 9, pp 374378.
299
CIEL, 2019. Plastic and Health: The
Hidden Costs of a Plastic Planet.
300 Zheng J. and Suh, S. (2019) " Strategies
to reduce the global carbon footprint of
plastics " , Nature Climate Change, 9, pp 374378
301
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, 2018. Global Warming of 1.5°C An
IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global
warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels
and related global greenhouse gas emission
pathways, in the context of strengthening
the global response to the threat of climate
change, sustainable development, and
efforts to eradicate poverty.
302 Geyer, R., Jambeck, J.R. and Law,
L.L., (2017) " Production, use, and fate of all
plastics ever made " , Science Advances, 3(7).
303 Geyer, R., Jambeck, J.R. and Law,
L.L., (2017) " Production, use, and fate of all
plastics ever made " , Science Advances, 3(7).
304 Geyer, R., Jambeck, J.R. and Law,
L.L., (2017) " Production, use, and fate of all
plastics ever made " , Science Advances, 3(7).
305 Plastics Europe, 2020. Plastics - the
Facts 2020: An analysis of European
plastics production, demand and waste
data.
306 WEF, 2016. The New Plastics Economy:
Rethinking the future of plastics.
307 International Energy Agency, 2015.
World Energy Outlook 2015.
308 Plastics Europe, 2020. Plastics - the
Facts 2020: An analysis of European
plastics production, demand and waste
data.
309 Drupp, M.A. et al. (2018) " Discounting
Disentangled " , American Economic Journal:
Economic Policy, 10(4), pp 109-34
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