TCoPS - 46

consumption and recycling data 2018/19.
219 World Wide Fund for Nature Australia
and Boston Consulting Group, 2020. Plastics
Revolution to reality - A roadmap to
halve Australia's single-use plastic litter.
220 Given the cost estimate is a pro-rata
estimate based on a global total, the authors
do not include the APEC figures as part of
the cost estimate and rather include them
here to show the specific costs for industries
for Australia. Source: APEC, 2020. Update
of 2009 APEC Report on Economic Costs of
Marine Debris to APEC Economies.
221 APEC, 2020. Update of 2009 APEC
Report on Economic Costs of Marine Debris
to APEC Economies.
222 Australian Government Commonwealth
Scientific and Industrial Research
Organisation, 2015. Inquiry into the Threat
of Marine Plastic Pollution in Australia and
Australian Waters.
223 Wilcox, C. et al. (2018) " A quantitative
analysis linking sea turtle mortality and
plastic debris ingestion " , Scientific Reports,
8(1).
224 Acampora, H. et al. (2013). " Comparing
plastic ingestion between juvenile and adult
stranded Short-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus
tenuirostris) in Eastern Australia " , Marine
Pollution Bulletin, 78(1-2).
225 Hardesty, B.D. et al. (2013).
" Understanding the effects of marine debris
on wildlife " , Commonwealth Scientific and
Industrial Research Organisation.
226 Department of Agriculture, Water and
the Environment, (2021) " Environment
Ministers Meeting 1Agreed Communique " ,
Australian Government, 15 April, viewed 6
August 2021, .
227
From July 1, 2021 only plastics that
have been either " sorted into single resin
or polymer type " or " processed with other
materials into processed engineered fuel "
may be exported; from July 1, 2022 only
plastics " that have been sorted into single
resin or polymer type and/or have been
further processed into, e.g. flakes or pellets "
will be able to be exported. Source: Recycling
and Waste Reduction Act 2020. Available
at: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/
C2020A00119.
228 Australian Government, 2021. National
Plastics Plan 2021.
229 Australian Government, n.b.d.
Australian Recycling Investment Fund.
230 Australian Government, 2020. Budget
2020-21: Supporting healthy oceans.
231 EIA, 2020. Plastic Pollution Prevention
in Pacific Island Countries: Gap analysis of
current legislation, policies and plans.
232 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
Research Organisation, 2021. National
Circular economy roadmap for plastics,
glass, paper and tyres. Pathways for
unlocking future growth opportunities for
Australia.
233 Hardesty, B, and Wilcox, C. (2011).
" Understanding the types, sources and at‐sea
distribution of marine debris in Australian
waters " , Commonwealth Scientific and
Industrial Research Organisation.
234 Jambeck, J.R. et al. (2015) " Plastic waste
inputs from land into the ocean " , Science,
347(6223), pp768-771.
235 This estimate is not a holistic and
bottom-up estimate of the costs incurred by
Japan, rather it is a pro-rata of the global cost
estimate based on Japan's share of global
waste generation from Our World in Data
WWF INTERNATIONAL 2021
figures; Our World in Data (n.d.), " Plastic
waste generation, 2010 " , viewed 6 August
2021, .
Total national plastic waste generation was
calculated by Our World in Data based on
per capita plastic waste generation data
published in Jambeck, J. R. et al. (2015).
Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean.
Science, 347(6223), pp 768-771. and total
population data published in the World Bank,
World Development Indicators (available at:
https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/
world-development-indicators).
IUCN-EA-QUANTIS, 2020. National
Guidance for plastic pollution hotspotting
and shaping action.
236 Ministry of the Environment
Government of Japan (2021), " The situation
of plastics both within and outside Japan "
available at: https://www.env.go.jp/
council/03recycle/20210128_s7.pdf.
237 UNEP. (2018). Single-use plastics: A
roadmap for sustainability.
238 Isobe, A. et al. (2015) 'East Asian seas:
A hot spot of pelagic microplastics', Marine
Pollution Bulletin, 101(2), pp 618-623.
239 Kuroda, M. et al. (2020) 'The current
state of marine debris on the seafloor
in offshore area around Japan', Marine
Pollution Bulletin, 161(A).
240 World Travel & Tourism Council. (2021).
Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2021.
241 Tanaka, K. and Takada, H. (2016)
'Microplastic fragments and microbeads in
digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from
urban coastal waters', Scientific Reports,
6(1).
242 OECD, 2021. Fisheries and Aquaculture
in Japan.
243 Japanese Government, 2000. The Basic
Act for Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle
Society.
244 United Nations, 2018. The state of
plastics: World Environment Day Outlook
2018.
245 Plastic Waste Management Institute,
2019. An Introduction to Plastic Recycling.
246 Plastic Waste Management Institute,
2019. An Introduction to Plastic Recycling.
247 Osaka Blue Ocean Vision (2020). About
us, viewed 2 August 2021.
248 EIA, 2021. Pressure on Japan grows
as poll shows public wants more action on
plastic pollution ahead of G7.
249 The Pew Charitable Trusts and
SYSTEMIQ, 2019. Breaking the Plastic
Wave.
250 Deloitte, 2015. Increased EU Plastics
Recycling Targets: Environmental,
Economic and Social Impact Assessment
Final Report.
251 Carbon Tracker, 2020. The Future's Not
in Plastics.
252 Geyer, R., Jambeck, J.R. and Law,
L.L., (2017) 'Production, use, and fate of all
plastics ever made', Science Advances, 3(7).
253 Drupp, M.A. et al. (2018) " Discounting
Disentangled " , American Economic Journal:
Economic Policy, 10(4), pp 109-34.
254 Beaumont N.J. et al. (2019) " Global
ecological, social and economic impacts of
marine plastic " , Marine Pollution Bulletin,
142, pp 189-195.
255 Costanza, R. et al. (2014) " Changes
in the global value of ecosystem services " ,
Global Environmental Change, 26(1), pp
152-158.
256 Jambeck, J.R. et al. (2015) " Plastic waste
inputs from land into the ocean " , Science,
347(6223), pp 768-771.
257 Jang, Y.C. et al. (2015) " Estimating the
Global Inflow and Stock of Plastic Marine
Debris Using Material Flow Analysis: A
Preliminary Approach " , Journal of the
Korean Society for Marine Environment &
Energy, 18(4), pp 263-273.
258 McKinsey, 2015. Stemming the Tide:
Land-based Strategies for a Plastic-free
Ocean.
259 Zheng J. and Suh, S. (2019) " Strategies
to reduce the global carbon footprint of
plastics " , Nature Climate Change, 9, pp 374378.
260
Plastics Europe, 2020. Plastics - the
Facts 2020: An analysis of European
plastics production, demand and waste
data.
261 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, 2018. Global Warming of 1.5°C An
IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global
warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels
and related global greenhouse gas emission
pathways, in the context of strengthening
the global response to the threat of climate
change, sustainable development, and
efforts to eradicate poverty.
262 HDPE price based on Statista, (2020),
" Price of high-density polyethylene
worldwide from 2017 to 2019 with estimated
figures for 2020 to 2022 " , viewed 10
August 2021, .
PET
price based on; Statista, (2020),
'Price of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
worldwide from 2017 to 2019 with estimated
figures for 2020 to 2022', viewed 10
August 2021, .
PVC
price based on; Statista, (2020), " Price
of polyvinyl chloride worldwide from 2017
to 2019 with estimated figures for 2020 to
2022 " , viewed 10 August 2021, .
PS
price based on; Statista, (2020), 'Price
of polystyrene (PS) worldwide from 2017
to 2019 with estimated figures for 2020 to
2022', viewed 10 August 2021, .
PP
price based on; Statista, (2020), 'Price
of polypropylene worldwide from 2017 to
2021', viewed 10 August 2021, .
263
Statista, (2019) " Distribution of plastic
production worldwide in 2018, by type " ,
viewed 4 August 2021, .
264
Plastics Europe, 2020. Plastics - the
Facts 2020: An analysis of European
plastics production, demand and waste
data.
265 The Pew Charitable Trusts and
SYSTEMIQ, 2019. Breaking the Plastic
Wave.
266 The collection costs were prorated for
plastics such that the collection costs account
for only the costs attributable to plastic waste
and are therefore higher than the collection
of other waste streams, such as organic
waste. Allocation was done to reflect the
relatively higher volume-to-weight ratio that
plastic occupies in a collection truck.
267 The Pew Charitable Trusts assumed
that all imported waste was formally sorted.
Import data was provided only for trade
among archetypes with no data provided
https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/plastic-waste-generation-total?tab=chart https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/plastic-waste-generation-total?tab=chart https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/world-development-indicators https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/world-development-indicators https://www.env.go.jp/council/03recycle/20210128_s7.pdf https://www.env.go.jp/council/03recycle/20210128_s7.pdf https://www.statista.com/statistics/1171074/price-high-density-polyethylene-forecast-globally/ https://www.statista.com/statistics/1171074/price-high-density-polyethylene-forecast-globally/ https://www.statista.com/statistics/1171074/price-high-density-polyethylene-forecast-globally/ https://www.statista.com/ https://www.awe.gov.au/sites/default/files/2021-04/emm-1-agreed-communique.pdf https://www.statista.com/statistics/1171088/price-polyvinyl-chloride-forecast-globally/ https://www.awe.gov.au/sites/default/files/2021-04/emm-1-agreed-communique.pdf https://www.statista.com/ https://www.awe.gov.au/sites/default/files/2021-04/emm-1-agreed-communique.pdf https://www.statista.com/statistics/1171131/price-polyvinyl-chloride-forecast-globally/ http://www.statista.com/statistics/1171131/price http://www.statista.com/statistics/1171131/price https://www.statista.com/statistics/1171105/price-polyvinyl-chloride-forecast-globally/ http://www.statista.com/statistics/1171105/price https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2020A00119 http://www.statista.com/statistics/1171105/price https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2020A00119 https://www.statista.com/statistics/1171084/price-polyvinyl-chloride-forecast-globally/ http://www.statista.com/statistics/1171084/price http://www.statista.com/statistics/1171084/price https://www.statista.com/statistics/968808/distribution-of-global-plastic-production-by-type/ https://www.statista.com/statistics/968808/price-polyvinyl-chloride-forecast-globallyhttps://www.statista.com/statistics/968808/price-polyvinyl-chloride-forecast-globally// https://www.statista.com/statistics/968808/price-polyvinyl-chloride-forecast-globallyhttps://www.statista.com/statistics/968808/price-polyvinyl-chloride-forecast-globally//

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of TCoPS

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https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2021
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/tcops
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/60th_anniversary
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2020
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/freshwater_fishes_report
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http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/covid19_report
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2019
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http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2017
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http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/dalbergreport2013
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwf_france/rapport_dactivite_2011-2012
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2012
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