TCoPS - 44

otherwise discarded fishing gear.
112 Cho, D.O. (2004). " Case Study of derelict
fishing gear in Republic of Korea " , paper
presented to APEC Seminar on Derelict
Fishing Gear and Related Marine Debris,
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 13-16 January.
113 CIEL, 2019. Plastic and Health: The
Hidden Costs of a Plastic Planet.
114 CIEL, 2019. Plastic and Health: The
Hidden Costs of a Plastic Planet.
115 Jemielita, T. (2015). " Unconventional
Gas and Oil Drilling Is Associated with
Increased Hospital Utilization Rates " , PLoS
ONE, 10(7), pp 1-18.
116 CIEL, 2019. Plastic and Health: The
Hidden Costs of a Plastic Planet.
117 Tait, P.W. et al. (2019). " The health
impacts of waste incineration: a systematic
review " , Australian and New Zealand
Journal of Public Health, 44(1), pp 1-9.
118 Tait, P.W. et al. (2019). " The health
impacts of waste incineration: a systematic
review " , Australian and New Zealand
Journal of Public Health, 44(1), pp 1-9.
119 White, S.S. and Birnbaum, L.S. (2010).
" An Overview of the Effects of Dioxins and
Dioxin-like Compounds on Vertebrates,
as Documented in Human and Ecological
Epidemiology " , J Environ Sci Health C
Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev, 27(4), pp
197-211.
120 Zhang, Y. et al. (2016). " Leaching
Characteristics of Trace Elements from
Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash " ,
Geotechnical Special Publication, 273, pp
168-178.
121 Zhang, Q. et al. (2020). " A Review
of Microplastics in Table Salt, Drinking
Water, and Air: Direct Human Exposure " ,
Environmental Science & Technology, 54(7),
pp 3740-3751.
122 Masantes, M.D., Consea, J.A. and
Fullana, A. (2020) " Microplastics in Honey,
Beer, Milk and Refreshments in Ecuador as
Emerging Contaminants " , Sustainability,
12(14), pp 1-17.
123 Hossain, M.S. et al. (2020).
" Microplastic contamination in Penaeid
shrimp from the Northern Bay of Bengal " ,
Chemosphere, 238.
124 Schwabl, P. et al. (2019) " Detection of
Various Microplastics in Human Stool: A
Prospective Case Series " , Annals of Internal
Medicine, 171(7).
125 Ragusa, A. et al. (2021) " Plasticenta:
First evidence of microplastics in human
placenta " , Environment International, 146.
126 CIEL, 2019. Plastic and Health: The
Hidden Costs of a Plastic Planet.
127 WHO, 2019. Microplastics in Drinking
Water.
128 Prata, J.C. et al. (2020) " Environmental
exposure to microplastics: An overview on
possible human health effects " , Science of the
Total Environment, 702.
129 World Health Organization, 2019.
Microplastics in drinking-water.
130 Bucca, K., Tulio, M. and Rochman,
C.M. (2019) " What is known and unknown
about the effects of plastic pollution: A metaanalysis
and systematic review " , Ecological
Applications, 30(2).
131 Zhao, S., Zhu, L. and Li, Daoji. (2016)
" Microscopic anthropogenic litter in
terrestrial birds from Shanghai, China: Not
only plastics but also natural fibers " , Science
of the Total Environment, 550, pp 1110-1115.
132 Omidi, A., H. Naeemipoor, and M.
Hosseini. (2012) " Plastic debris in the
digestive tract of sheep and goats: An
increasing environmental contamination in
WWF INTERNATIONAL 2021
Birjand, Iran " , Bulletin of Environmental
Contamination and Toxicology, 88(5), pp
691-694.
133 Maclvor, J.S. and Moore, A. (2013)
" Bees collect polyurethane and polyethylene
plastics as novel nest materials " , Ecosphere,
4(12).
134 Piehl, S. et al. (2018) " Identification and
quantification of macro-and microplastics on
an agricultural farmland " , Scientific reports,
8(1), pp 1-9.
135 Sanders L.C. and Lord E.M. (1989)
" Directed movement of latex particles in the
gynoecia of three species of flowering plants " ,
Science, 243(4898), pp 1606-8.
136 Boots, B., Russell, C.W. and Green,
D.S. (2019) " Effects of Microplastics in Soil
Ecosystems: Above and Below Ground " ,
Environmental Science and Technology,
53(19).
137 Steinmetz, Z. et al. (2016) " Plastic
mulching in agriculture. Trading shortterm
agronomic benefits for long-term
soil degradation? " , Science of the Total
Environment, 550, pp 690-705.
138 Tishman Environment and Design
Center, 2019. U.S. Municipal Solid Waste
Incinerators: An Industry in Decline.
139 Fernández‐Llamazares, A. et al. (2019)
" A State‐of‐the‐Art Review of Indigenous
Peoples and Environmental Pollution " ,
Integrated Environmental Assessment and
Management, 16(3), pp 324-341.
140 UNEP, 2021. Neglected: Environmental
Justice Impacts of Marine Litter and Plastic
Pollution.
141 CIEL, 2019. Plastic and Health: The
Hidden Cost of a Plastic Planet.
142 Zhao, Q. et al. (2016) " The Effect of the
Nengda Incineration Plant on Residential
Property Values in Hangzhou, China " ,
Journal of Real Estate Literature, 24(1), pp
85-102.
143 Auler, F., Nakashima, A.T. and Cuman,
R.K. (2013) " Health Conditions of Recyclable
Waste Pickers " , Journal of Community
Health, 39(1).
144 Velis, C.A. and Cook, E. (2021)
" Mismanagement of Plastic Waste through
Open Burning with Emphasis on the
Global South: A Systematic Review of
Risks to Occupational and Public Health " ,
Environmental Science & Technology, 55(11),
pp 7186-7207.
145 Zolnikov, T.R. et al. (2021) " A
systematic review on informal waste picking:
Occupational hazards and health outcomes " ,
Waste Management, 126, pp 291-308.
146 Kistan, J. et al. (2020) " Health care
access of informal waste recyclers in
Johannesburg, South Africa " , PLoS One,
15(7).
147 International Monetary Fund.
(2017) " The Effects of Weather Shocks on
Economic Activity: How Can Low-Income
Countries Cope? " in Seeking Sustainable
Growth: Short-Term Recovery, Long-Term
Challenges, pp 117-184.
148 International Monetary Fund.
(2017) " The Effects of Weather Shocks on
Economic Activity: How Can Low-Income
Countries Cope? " in Seeking Sustainable
Growth: Short-Term Recovery, Long-Term
Challenges, pp 117-184.
149 Islam S.N. and Winkel, J. (2017)
Climate Change and Social Inequality. UN
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
DESA Working Paper No. 152. Available at:
https://www.un.org/esa/desa/papers/2017/
wp152_2017.pdf
150 See Annex 3: Methodology for an
overview of how this figure was calculated.
All values provided in 2019 US$.
151 The Pew Charitable Trusts and
SYSTEMIQ, 2019. Breaking the Plastic
Wave.
152 The Pew Charitable Trusts and
SYSTEMIQ, 2019. Breaking the Plastic
Wave.
153 Walpole, S.C. et al. (2012) " The weight
of nations: an estimation of adult human
biomass " , BMC Public Health, 12(439).
154 See Annex 3: Methodology for more
details on how these figures were estimated.
All values provided in 2019 US$.
155 This is based on the authors of this
report's estimate of the median projected cost
of the plastic produced in 2040 being US$7.1
trillion - upper bound being US$9.3 trillion
and lower bound being US$4.9 trillion - and
that global spending on health was US$8.3
trillion in 2018 as per the World Health
Organization, 2020. Global spending on
health: Weathering the storm.
156 This is based on the authors of this
report's estimate of the median projected
societal lifetime cost of the plastic produced
in 2040 being US$7.1 trillion - upper bound
being US$9.3 trillion and lower bound
being US$4.9 trillion - and that the GDPs
of Germany (US$3.86 trillion), Canada
(US$1.74 trillion), and Australia (US$1.4
trillion), sum up to US$7 trillion as per
data from Investopedia Silver, Caleb.,
2020. The Top 25 Economies in the World.
Investopedia. Available at: 
[Accessed 18 August 2021].
157 This is based on the authors of this
report's estimate of the median projected cost
of the plastic produced in 2040 being US$7.1
trillion - upper bound being US$9.3 trillion
and lower bound being US$4.9trillion - and
that global spending on health was US$8.3
trillion in 2018 as per the World Health
Organization, 2020. Global spending on
health: Weathering the storm.
158 This is based on the authors of this
report's estimate of the median projected cost
of the plastic produced in 2040 being US$7.1
trillion - upper bound being US$9.3 trillion
and lower bound being US$4.9 trillion - and
that and that the GDPs of Germany (US$3.86
trillion), Canada (US$1.74 trillion), and
Australia (US$1.4 trillion), sum up to US$7
trillion as per data from Investopedia Silver,
Caleb., 2020. The Top 25 Economies in the
World. Investopedia. Available at: 
[Accessed 18 August 2021].
159 This is based on limiting warming to
under 1.5 C.
160 The Pew Charitable Trusts and
SYSTEMIQ, 2019. Breaking the Plastic
Wave.
161 The Pew Charitable Trusts and
SYSTEMIQ, 2019. Breaking the Plastic
Wave.
162 CIEL, 2019. Plastic and Climate: The
Hidden Costs of a Plastic Planet.
163 European Commission, 2020. Draft
budget 2020: Statement of Estimates.
164 Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2021.
Policies for a Circular Economy for
Plastic: The Ellen MacArthur Foundation's
perspective on a UN treaty to address plastic
pollution.
165 The Pew Charitable Trusts and
SYSTEMIQ, 2019. Breaking the Plastic
Wave.
166 Tyres, textiles, personal care products
and production pellets. Source: the Pew
https://www.investopedia.com/insights/worlds-top-economies/ https://www.investopedia.com/insights/worlds-top-economies/ https://www.investopedia.com/insights/worlds-top-economies/ https://www.investopedia.com/insights/worlds-top-economies/ https://www.investopedia.com/insights/worlds-top-economies/ https://www.investopedia.com/insights/worlds-top-economies/ https://www.un.org/esa/desa/papers/2017/wp152_2017.pdf https://www.un.org/esa/desa/papers/2017/wp152_2017.pdf

TCoPS

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of TCoPS

TCoPS - 1
TCoPS - 2
TCoPS - 3
TCoPS - 4
TCoPS - 5
TCoPS - 6
TCoPS - 7
TCoPS - 8
TCoPS - 9
TCoPS - 10
TCoPS - 11
TCoPS - 12
TCoPS - 13
TCoPS - 14
TCoPS - 15
TCoPS - 16
TCoPS - 17
TCoPS - 18
TCoPS - 19
TCoPS - 20
TCoPS - 21
TCoPS - 22
TCoPS - 23
TCoPS - 24
TCoPS - 25
TCoPS - 26
TCoPS - 27
TCoPS - 28
TCoPS - 29
TCoPS - 30
TCoPS - 31
TCoPS - 32
TCoPS - 33
TCoPS - 34
TCoPS - 35
TCoPS - 36
TCoPS - 37
TCoPS - 38
TCoPS - 39
TCoPS - 40
TCoPS - 41
TCoPS - 42
TCoPS - 43
TCoPS - 44
TCoPS - 45
TCoPS - 46
TCoPS - 47
TCoPS - 48
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2021
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/tcops
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/60th_anniversary
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2020
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/freshwater_fishes_report
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/ghost_gear_report
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/covid19_report
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/livingplanet_summary
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/livingplanet_full
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/conversation_strategy
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2015
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2013
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/dalbergreport2013-de
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/dalbergreport2013-fr
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/dalbergreport2013
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwf_france/rapport_dactivite_2011-2012
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2012
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com