TCoPS - 43

54 Zheng, J. and Suh, S. (2019) " Strategies
to reduce the global carbon footprint of
plastics " , Nature Climate Change, 9, pp
374-378. 1.8Gt is the estimate of emissions
excluding the displacement of virgin polymer
production from recycling.
55 UNEP, 2020. Emissions Gap Report
2020.
56 This is based on GHG emissions
excluding land-use change. Plastic would be
exceeded by China, United States of America,
India, and the Russian Federation. EU27
+UK would also exceed plastic but this report
excluded them from the ranking as they are
a group of countries not a singular country;
UNEP, 2020. Emissions Gap Report 2020.
57 NASA. (n.d.) The Effects of Climate
Change, viewed 13 August 2021, < https://
climate.nasa.gov/effects/>.
58 European Commission. (n.d.) Climate
Change consequences.
59 WWF. (n.d.) Effects of Climate Change,
viewed 13 August 2021, < https://www.
worldwildlife.org/threats/effects-of-climatechange>.
60
National Resources Defence Council,
2008. The Cost of Climate Change: What
We'll Pay if Global Warming Continues
Unchecked.
61 Zheng, J. and Suh, S. (2019) " Strategies
to reduce the global carbon footprint of
plastics " , Nature Climate Change, 9, pp 374378.
62
Zheng, J. and Suh, S. (2019) " Strategies
to reduce the global carbon footprint of
plastics " , Nature Climate Change, 9, pp 374378.
63
CIEL, 2019. Plastic and Climate: The
Hidden Costs of a Plastic Planet.
64 Zheng, J. and Suh, S. (2019) " Strategies
to reduce the global carbon footprint of
plastics " , Nature Climate Change, 9, pp 374378.
65
Reyna-Bensusan, N. et al. (2019)
" Experimental measurements of black carbon
emission factors to estimate the global
impact of uncontrolled burning of waste " ,
Atmospheric Environment, 213, pp 629-639.
66 Royer, S.J, et al. (2018) " Production of
Methane and Ethylene from Plastic in the
Environment " , PLoS ONE, 13(8), pp 1-13.
67 See Annex 3: Methodology for an
overview of how these costs were estimated.
All values provided in 2019 US$.
68 The Pew Charitable Trusts and
SYSTEMIQ, 2019. Breaking the Plastic
Wave.
69 Based on data collected by the Pew
Charitable Trusts and SYSTEMIQ; the Pew
Charitable Trusts and SYSTEMIQ, 2019.
Breaking the Plastic Wave (see Annex 3:
Methodology for more detail on how these
figures were calculated. All values provided in
2019 US$).
70 Brooks, A.L., Wang, S. and Jambeck, J.
R. (2018). " The Chinese import ban and its
impact on global plastic waste trade " , Science
Advances, 4(6), pp 1-7.
71 McCormick, E. et al. (2019) " Where does
your plastic go? Global investigation reveals
America's dirty secret " , The Guardian, 17
June.
72 This calculation is based on US plastic
waste per capita of 0.1062 tonnes as per
Holden, E. " US produces far more waste and
recycles far less of it than other developed
countries " , The Guardian, 3 July, accessed
6 August, ,
and average household size
of 2.53 as per Statista, (2020), " Average
number of people per household in the
United States from 1960 to 2020 " , viewed
6 August 2021, .
Multiplying per
capita plastic waste by average household
size results in plastic waste per household
(0.269 tonnes). Dividing 83,000 tonnes of
plastic waste exported to Vietnam divided
by plastic waste per household results in
approximately 300,000 US households.
73 IUCN-EA-QUANTIS, 2020. National
Guidance for plastic pollution hotspotting
and shaping action, Country report:
Vietnam.
74 Gaia, 2019. Discarded: Communities on
the Frontlines of the Global Plastic Crisis.
75 Tabuchi, H. and Corkery, M. (2019)
" Countries Tried to Curb Trade in Plastic
Waste. The U.S. Is Shipping More " , The New
York Times, 12 March.
76 Interpol, 2018. Strategic Analysis
Report: Emerging criminal trends in the
global plastic waste market since January
2018.
77 See Annex 3: Methodology for an
overview of how these costs were estimated.
All values provided in 2019 US$.
78 Barbier E.B. (2017) " Marine ecosystem
services " , Current Biology, 27(11).
79 See Annex 3: Methodology for an
overview of how these costs were estimated.
All values provided in 2019 US$.
80 Costanza et al. (2014) " Changes in the
global value of ecosystem services " , Global
Environmental Change, 26, pp 152-158.
81 The exception is algae and bacteria.
Plastic increases the range of habitats
available for colonization and enables the
spread of these species to new areas, thus
increasing their range and abundance.
Beaumont, N.J. et al. " Global ecological,
social and economic impacts of marine
plastic " , Marine Pollution Bulletin, 142, pp
189-195.
82 Beaumont, N.J. et al. (2019) " Global
ecological, social and economic impacts of
marine plastic " , Marine Pollution Bulletin,
142, pp 189-195.
83 Based on Beaumont, N.J. et al. (2019)
" Global ecological, social and economic
impacts of marine plastic " , Marine Pollution
Bulletin, 142, pp 189-195.
84 Beaumont, N.J. et al. (2019) " Global
ecological, social and economic impacts of
marine plastic " , Marine Pollution Bulletin,
142, pp 189-195.
85 The authors of this report have
calculated this by using a perpetual net
present value (NPV) formula (see Annex 3:
Methodology for more detail into how the
authors obtained this estimate).
86 This is based on the authors of this
report's estimate of the median minimum
ecosystem service cost of US$3.1 trillion
- upper bound being US$4.2 trillion and
lower bound being US$2.1 trillion - and
global spending on education in 2019 was
US$5.0 trillion as per the World Bank, 2021.
Education Finance Watch (figure 1).
87 Watson, A.J. et al. (2020) " Revised
estimates of ocean-atmosphere CO2
flux are
consistent with ocean carbon inventory " ,
Nature Communications, 11(4422), pp 1-6.
88 Basu, S. and Mackey, K.R.M. (2018)
" Phytoplankton as Key Mediators of the
Biological Carbon Pump: Their Responses to
a Changing Climate " , Sustainability, 10(3).
89 Desforges JP.W., Galbraith, M. and Ross,
P.S. (2015) " Ingestion of Microplastics by
Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean " ,
Archives of Environmental Contamination
and Toxicology, 69, pp 320-330.
90 Wieczorek, A.M. et al. (2019).
" Microplastic Ingestion by Gelatinous
Zooplankton May Lower Efficiency of the
Biological Pump " , Environmental Science &
Technology, 53(9), pp 5387-5395.
91 Cole, M. et al. (2015). " The Impact
of Polystyrene Microplastics on Feeding,
Function and Fecundity in the Marine
Copepod Calanus helgolandicus " ,
Environmental Science & Technology, 49(2),
pp 1130-1137.
92 Cole, M. et al. (2013). " Microplastic
Ingestion by Zooplankton " , Environmental
Science & Technology, 47(12), pp 6646-6655.
93 Deloitte, 2019. Price Tag of Plastic
Pollution.
94 Deloitte, 2019. Price Tag of Plastic
Pollution.
95 Beaumont, N.J. et al. (2019) 'Global
ecological, social and economic impacts of
marine plastic', Marine Pollution Bulletin,
142, pp 189-195.
96 Deloitte, 2019. Price Tag of Plastic
Pollution.
97 Deloitte, 2019. Price Tag of Plastic
Pollution.
98 Deloitte, 2019. Price Tag of Plastic
Pollution.
99 Deloitte, 2019. Price Tag of Plastic
Pollution.
100 WWF, 2020. Stop Ghost Gear: The most
deadly form of marine plastic debris.
101 Gall, S.C. and Thompson, R.C. (2015).
" The impact of debris on marine life " , Marine
Pollution Bulletin, 92(1-2), pp 170-179.
102 WWF, 2020. Stop Ghost Gear: The most
deadly form of marine plastic debris.
103 Seal haul-out sites are locations on land
where seals come ashore to rest, moult or
breed.
104 Allen, R., Jarvis, D., Sayer, S. and Mills,
C. (2012). " Entanglement of grey seals
Halichoerus grypus at a haul out site in
Cornwall, UK. " , Marine pollution bulletin, 64
(12), pp 2815-2819.
105 Allen, R., Jarvis, D., Sayer, S. and Mills,
C. (2012). " Entanglement of grey seals
Halichoerus grypus at a haul out site in
Cornwall, UK. " , Marine pollution bulletin, 64
(12), pp 2815-2819.
106 Karamanlidis, A.A. et al. (2008).
" Assessing accidental entanglement as a
threat to the Mediterranean monk seal
Monachus monachus " , Endangered Species
Research, 5(2), p205-213.
107 NOAA, 2019. Marine Debris Impacts on
Coastal and Benthic Habitats.
108 Valderrama Ballesteros, L., Matthews,
J.L. and Hoeksema, B.W. (2018). " Pollution
and coral damage caused by derelict fishing
gear on coral reefs around Koh Tao, Gulf of
Thailand. " Marine Pollution Bulletin, 135,
pp 1107-1116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
marpolbul.2018.08.033.
109 Airoldi, L., Balata, D. and Beck, M.W.
(2008). " The Gray Zone: Relationships
between habitat loss and marine diversity
and their applications in conservation " ,
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology
and Ecology, (366), pp 8-15.
110 Richardson, K. et al. (2019). " Building
evidence around ghost gear: Global trends
and analysis for sustainable solutions at
scale " , Marine Pollution Bulletin, (138), pp
222-229.
111 UNEP, 2009. Abandoned, lost or
43
https://www.statista.com/statistics/183648/average-size-of-households-in-the-us/ https://www.statista.com/statistics/183648/average-size-of-households-in-the-us/ https://www.statista.com/statistics/183648/average-size-of-households-in-the-us/ http://climate.nasa.gov/effects/ http://climate.nasa.gov/effects/ https://www.worldwildlife.org/threats/effects-of-climate-change https://www.worldwildlife.org/threats/effects-of-climate-change https://www.worldwildlife.org/threats/effects-of-climate-change https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.08.033 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.08.033 https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jul/02/us-plastic-waste-recycling https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jul/02/us-plastic-waste-recycling https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jul/02/us-plastic-waste-recycling

TCoPS

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of TCoPS

TCoPS - 1
TCoPS - 2
TCoPS - 3
TCoPS - 4
TCoPS - 5
TCoPS - 6
TCoPS - 7
TCoPS - 8
TCoPS - 9
TCoPS - 10
TCoPS - 11
TCoPS - 12
TCoPS - 13
TCoPS - 14
TCoPS - 15
TCoPS - 16
TCoPS - 17
TCoPS - 18
TCoPS - 19
TCoPS - 20
TCoPS - 21
TCoPS - 22
TCoPS - 23
TCoPS - 24
TCoPS - 25
TCoPS - 26
TCoPS - 27
TCoPS - 28
TCoPS - 29
TCoPS - 30
TCoPS - 31
TCoPS - 32
TCoPS - 33
TCoPS - 34
TCoPS - 35
TCoPS - 36
TCoPS - 37
TCoPS - 38
TCoPS - 39
TCoPS - 40
TCoPS - 41
TCoPS - 42
TCoPS - 43
TCoPS - 44
TCoPS - 45
TCoPS - 46
TCoPS - 47
TCoPS - 48
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2021
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/tcops
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/60th_anniversary
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2020
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/freshwater_fishes_report
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/ghost_gear_report
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/covid19_report
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/livingplanet_summary
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/livingplanet_full
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/conversation_strategy
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2015
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2013
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/dalbergreport2013-de
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/dalbergreport2013-fr
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/dalbergreport2013
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwf_france/rapport_dactivite_2011-2012
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2012
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com