JCU - January 2022 - 57

Rodrigues et al.
57
Figure 1. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance for each bacterium identified on fecal microbiota. The Escherichia coli was the most
prevalent 42/72 (58.3%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 14/72 (19.4%), Enterobacter cloacae 3/72 (4,2%) and Citrobacter freundii
3/72 (4.2%).
Analysis of rectal microbiota
Sixty-four patients (15.8%), presented 72 identified bacteria
with antibiotic resistance on rectal microbiota.
Ampicillin resistance was found in 27 of these 72 (36.1%),
followed by Ciprofloxacin in 20 (27.8%), AmoxicillinClavulanate
in 20 (27.8%), Cefoxitin in 3 (4.2%),
Ceftriaxone in 1 (1.4%) and Norfloxacin in 1 (1.4%). No
resistance to Gentamicin alone, or combined resistance to
Ceftriaxone and bacteria. Groups 1 and 2 were not different
for antibiotic resistance of rectal microbiota. All Citrobacter
freundii and Enterococcus faecium bacteria isolated were
resistant to fluoroquinolones, followed by 50% of all
Klebsiella oxytoca, 42.8% of all Enterobacter cloacae and
33% of all Proteus mirabilis Pseudomonas aeruginosa and
14.2% of all. Ciprofloxacin was identified. Figure 1 shows
the prevalence of antibiotic resistance for each identified
bacterium.
Biopsy complications and possible risk factors
Univariated analysis. A total of 25 (6.2%) patients presented
27 major post-biopsy complications (Group 2), distributed
as follows: infectious complications, acute urinary retention
and bleeding, respectively: 11/404 (2.7%), 14/404
(3.5%) and 2/404 (0.5%) of all patients; and 11/27 (40.7%),
14/27 (51.8%) and 2/27 (7.4%) of all complications.
Eleven patients reported LUTS, fever or chills on phone
calls, and they were considered suspicious for infection.
Only three patients needed hospitalization due to fever,
chills, tachycardia, tachypnea and leucocytosis, which represented
0.7% of our cohort. None of them presented positive
cultures during hospitalization. We reported no severe
hemorrhage (requiring transfusion or surgical treatment),
osteitis pubis, abscess formation, endocarditis, sepsis or
septic shock were reported in our cohort. Patient ethnicity
was not different between Groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.76).
Table 1 shows the differences between groups following
continuous variables. Tables 2-4 describe the possible risk
factors, distributes as categorical variables, where no variable
showed the difference between groups.
Correlations. The occurrence of biopsy complications
showed a weak correlation with ultrasound-estimated prostatic
volume (Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient of
−0.198, p = 0.01) and presented no significant correlation
with other variables.
Analysis of complications frequency following a Cohort
design. No difference between Groups 1 and 2 was noted

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