In Broadcast - September 2021 - 66

66
www.inbroadcast.com | Vol: 11 - Issue 9 | September 2021
InTech
Cameras for video assistant
referee systems (VAR) -
What should they be like?
A
By Igor Vitiorets, CTO, Slomo TV...
ny video-refereeing system
involves recording from cameras.
At first VAR was using signals from TV
broadcaster cameras. These cameras
provide high-quality images and, as a
rule, work synchronously: they produce
the same number of frames in the
same time period and their shutters
are triggered simultaneously. However,
they are controlled by cameramen
and it may turn out that although
the system recorded many cameras,
the video needed for review is simply
missing. We also shouldn't forget that
the broadcaster might not be present
at all competitions.
Based on these factors, the most
appropriate solution is to use for VAR
systems the dedicated cameras. This
allows placing the cameras in the
designated locations that provide the
most complete overview of the field,
targeting them at the desired area or
object, and setting the correct viewing
angle.
The optimal positioning of cameras
also allows minimizing the number of
the recording channels. There is no
need to worry that a certain moment
will not be recorded.
Since
adding cameras
leads
to additional costs, one of the
requirements is cameras at an
affordable price. In this regard, the
cameras that output SDI video and IP
cameras are considered.
IP cameras - not the best
choice for a VAR system
Low
cost and a wide product
range are the main advantages of IP
cameras. They are connected with a
widely available standard twisted-pair
cable.
However, nowadays IP cameras are
quite rarely used in video-refereeing
for a very simple reason: these
cameras are not synchronous and
the transmission of video over IP
makes the task of synchronizing video
streams difficult to implement. This
makes them unsuitable for analyzing
the moments, which are related to
timing or require determination of the
object's position at a certain point in
time.
a look at the 24-second
What does this mean? Let's take
in
rule
basketball. If a throw is made before
the end of the attack time, it counts.
But what if it happens at the last
second? With the IP camera, we cannot
accurately determine the point in time.
This can lead to a wrong decision.
The situation will not change even if
one camera captures the scoreboard,
because the cameras remain not
synchronized by frame and by phase.
Similar difficulties will also exist with
identifying the offside position in
soccer since it is not possible to match
the frames and determine the position
of the objects.
Basic requirements
for the cameras
Currently, the most suitable cameras
for video-refereeing are those that
output uncompressed video signals in
real time, so most VAR systems now
use cameras with SDI outputs.
What should be considered when
choosing an SDI camera?
First, the camera must provide the
desired viewing angle and control
of zoom and focus. Cheap cameras
without a built-in zoom lens require
a separate lens, which is selected
depending on the sport and arena.
Another significant disadvantage of
IP cameras is a consequence of their
advantage. The camera outputs a
compressed video stream with a low
bitrate (with IP codecs - MPEG 2, H.264
or H.265). On the one hand, this allows
recording more information to the
server's disk array, but on the other
hand, it is difficult to search frame-byframe,
especially simultaneously on
several cameras.
of
In fact, one of the basic modes
video-refereeing
-
Synchronous
Multiscreen - becomes unavailable.
Currently, there is no tool that can
provide all existing and needed VAR
functionality with IP cameras. There
is no doubt that these problems will be
solved in the near future, but for the
moment these factors remain crucial.
It makes the camera cheaper,
but
does not provide all the features of
the built-in lens. The use of cameras
with external lenses for portable VAR
systems is complicated, because the
size and geometry of the areas can
vary.
Cameras installed in a hard-to-reach
location, such as under the roof of an
arena for over-the-goal view, need to
use a built-in Zoom lens with remote
control support. Otherwise, it is almost
impossible to adjust it during the
match.
Often there is not enough light in
arenas.
For this reason,
cameras
should be sensitive enough to work
with shutter speeds of 1/100, 1/200,
1/500 without the Dynamic Noise
Reduction algorithm, which can cause
visual errors.
Because images from the videorefereeing
cameras are sometimes
included in TV broadcasts, the ability
to also control the camera settings,
such as color correction, is an
additional advantage.
How should the camera control
be properly organized? The optimal
solution is to do it via Ethernet. This
requires standard, inexpensive and
common cables. In addition, you can
use the existing infrastructure of the
facility. Ethernet has many advantages
over specialized data interfaces (RS422,
RS-232, etc.)
http://www.inbroadcast.com https://slomo.tv/en/ https://slomo.tv/en/ https://slomo.tv/en/

In Broadcast - September 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of In Broadcast - September 2021

Contents
In Broadcast - September 2021 - Intro
In Broadcast - September 2021 - Cover1
In Broadcast - September 2021 - Cover2
In Broadcast - September 2021 - Contents
In Broadcast - September 2021 - 4
In Broadcast - September 2021 - 5
In Broadcast - September 2021 - 6
In Broadcast - September 2021 - 7
In Broadcast - September 2021 - 8
In Broadcast - September 2021 - 9
In Broadcast - September 2021 - 10
In Broadcast - September 2021 - 11
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In Broadcast - September 2021 - Cover3
In Broadcast - September 2021 - Cover4
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