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90	 Valin H, et al. "The future of food demand:
understanding differences in global economic
models." (2013)
91	 Secretariat of the United Nations Convention to
Combat Desertification. "Global Land Outlook."
92	 Fraser D., FAO. "Animal welfare and the intensification of animal production." (2005)
93	 Case and death totals as of 31/05/2020. John
Hopkins University. COVID-19 Dashboard.
94	 WHO. "New WHO estimates: Up to 190 000
people could die of COVID-19 in Africa if not
controlled." (2020) (https://www.afro.who.
95	 CDC. "2009 H1N1 Pandemic." (2009)
96	 Note: the exact number of deaths attributed to
swine flu is not known, with only 18,449 deaths
confirmed by the WHO, but CDC modelling
estimates up to 575,400.
97	 Asian Development Bank. "An Updated Assessment of the Economic Impact of COVID-19."
98	 Bloomberg. "Coronavirus Could Cost the
Global Economy $2.7 Trillion. Here's How."
(2020) (
99	 IMF. "World Economic outlook: April 2020:
the great lockdown" (2020)
100	 IMF. "World Economic outlook: April 2020:
the great lockdown" (2020)
101	 ILO. "ILO Monitor: COVID-19 and the world of
work." (2020) (
102	 Food Security Information Network Secretariat. "Food Security Information Network
Secretariat." (2020)
103	 United Nations. "Policy Brief 70: The Impact of
COVID-19 on Indigenous Peoples." (2020)
104	 Brazilian Indigenous Peoples' Association. "# 1
Indigenous lives and Covid-19." (2020)
105	 United Nations. "Policy Brief 70: The Impact of
COVID-19 on Indigenous Peoples." (2020)
106	 Forest Peoples. "Increased hunger and poverty
among the Batwa amidst COVID-19 in Uganda." (2020) (
107	 UNFPA. "Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
on Family Planning and Ending Gender-based
Violence, Female Genital Mutilation and Child
Marriage Pandemic threatens achievement of
the Transformative Results committed to by
UNFPA" (2020) (
108	 UNFPA. "COVID-19: a gender lens protecting
sexual and reproductive health and rights and
promoting gender equality." (2020)
109	 Plan International. "How will COVID-19 affect
girls and young women?" (2020) (https://
110	 Center for Strategic and International Studies.
"Extremist Groups Stepping up Operations
during the Covid-19 Outbreak in Sub-Saharan
Africa." (2020)
111	 United Nations Secretary General. "Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council
on the COVID-19 Pandemic." (2020)
112	 IMF. "COVID-19 Poses Formidable Threat for
Fragile States in the Middle East and North
Africa." (2020)
113	 World Economic Forum. "We urgently need
major cooperation on global security in the
COVID-19 era" (2020) (https://www.weforum.
114	 Reuters. "Exclusive: Brazil scales back environmental enforcement amid coronavirus."
(2020) (


115	 Yale School of Forestry and Environmental
Studies. "Amid Coronavirus Lockdown, a Spike
in Illegal Logging in Tunisia." (2020) (https://
116	 Wildlife Conservation Society. "COVID-19
fueling an uptick in poaching." (2020)
117	 Ghana Gurung, Pers. comm. Based on a
preliminary review of unpublished case data
from 11 protected areas in Nepal conducted by
the Department of National Parks and Wildlife
Conservation (DNPWC) and WWF-Nepal.
118	 "EPA Announces Enforcement Discretion Policy for COVID-19 Pandemic" (2020) (https://
119	 Wilkinson, D. & Chavez, L. "How Covid-19
Could Impact the Climate Crisis." (2020)
120	 Caillaud, D., Levréro, F., Cristescu, R., Gatti,
S., Dewas, M., Douadi, M., Gautier-Hion, A.,
Raymond, M. & Ménard, N. (2006). Gorilla
susceptibility to Ebola virus: the cost of sociality. Current Biology, 16, R489-R491
121	 WHO, "H5N1 avian influenza: Timeline of
major events" (2012)
122	 Buck, J.C. & Ripple, W.J. "Infectious Agents
Trigger Trophic Cascades" (2017)
123	 IPCC. "IPCC 2019 Climate Change and Land."
124	 Note that other sources estimate even higher
levels of emissions
125	 IPCC. "IPCC 2019 Climate Change and Land."
126	 IPCC. "IPCC Special Report on Global Warming
of 1.5˚C Chapter 5." (2018)
127	 IPCC. "IPCC Special Report on Global Warming
of 1.5˚C Chapter 5." (2018)
128	 Report of the Secretary-General. "Special
edition: progress towards the Sustainable
Development Goals." (2019)
129	 New York Declaration on Forests. "Progress
assessment." (2019)
130	 "Aichi Biodiversity Targets." (2020) (https://
131	 Protected Planet Aichi Target 11 Dashboard.
132	 IUCN. "The World Now Protects 15% of Its
Land, but Crucial Biodiversity Zones Left Out."
(2016) (
133	 Rights and Resources Initiative. "Who owns the
world's land?" (2015)
134	Zhang et al. "Wildlife trade, consumption and
conversation awareness in southwest China."
135	Horm et al. "Influenza A (H5N1) virus surveillance at live poultry markets, Cambodia, 2011."
136	 Rogerson. "Forest 500 annual report 2018 - the
countdown to 2020." (2019)
137	 New York Declaration on Forests Progress
Assessment. "Goal 2." (2019) (
138	 New York Declaration on Forests. "Progress
assessment." (2019)
139	 Reducing emissions from deforestation and
forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and
enhancement of forest carbon stocks.
140	 Green Climate Fund. "Accelerating REDD+
implementation." (2019)
141	 New York Declaration on Forests. "Progress
assessment." (2019)
142	 "How do Great Britain and the world view
climate change and Covid-19?" (2020)

143	 Visconti & Young. "Do natural disasters change
risk perceptions and policy preferences about
climate change?" (2019)
144	 Note: these figures represent the total size of
the country's recovery and stimulus plans,
including both rescue funds and stimulus packages, and therefore not all could be applicable
to a "green and just recovery" process.
145	 NHS. "NHS army of volunteers to start protecting vulnerable from coronavirus in England."
146	 WWF, "The critical role of policies for deforestation- and conversion-free supply chains."
147	 "Companies alone cannot tackle deforestation."
(2019) (
148	 Note: CDP Forests is recommended as a
third-party reporting platform that is fully
aligned with AFi principles and guidance on
deforestation and conversion.
149	 "New framework offers clear guidance for turning deforestation & conversion-free commitments into action." (2019) (https://wwf.panda.
150	 WWF, "Landscapes: collaborating for sustainability at scale." (2016) (
151	 UNDP, "Value beyond value chains." (n.d.)
152	 "WWF Forest Solution" (n.d.)"
153	 Keating. Forbes. "EU will fight COVID
recession with green investment." (2020)
154	 Takeo & Hirokawa. Bloomberg. "Japan Doubles
Down to Deliver World's 'Biggest' Stimulus
Package." (2020) (
156	 For example, large Canadian companies will
be required to "publish annual climate-related
disclosure reports consistent with the Financial
Stability Board's Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures, including how their
future operations will support environmental
sustainability and national climate goals"
157	 For example, the Science Based Targets initiative and the European Green Taxonomy measure the "climate impact" of recovery money.
158	 See the New Deal for Nature and People
159	 Subsidies to agriculture, water, fossil fuels and
fisheries, and to production inputs (e.g. energy
and fertilizers) which currently encourage
over-exploitation of natural resources, amount
to US$4-6 trillion globally per year (OECD,
2017; Andres et al., 2019; Coady et al., 2019).
This is massively larger than the financial flows
currently directed toward conservation and restoration of the biosphere, which are US$67.8
billion globally per year (OECD, 2020).
160	 INTO THE WILD: Integrating nature into
investment strategies:

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