COVID-19 Report - 25

FIGURE 4: NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM MOST FATAL EMERGING ZOONOTIC DISEASES (1998-2020)
COVID-19 (GLOBAL)

370,000

SWINE FLU (GLOBAL)

18,449

EBOLA (DRC, GUINEA, SIERRA LEONE, LIBERIA)

13,593

575,400
NUMBER OF DEATHS DIRECTLY ATTRIBUTED TO DISEASE
WORST CASE ESTIMATE

MERS (GLOBAL) 850
SARS (GLOBAL) 774
AVIAN FLU (GLOBAL) 440
NIPAH VIRUS (MALAYSIA, BANGLADESH, INDIA) 365

Sources: WHO data; CDC estimate of swine flu deaths: COVID-19 and Ebola death totals as of June 2020
Note: Exact number of deaths attributed to swine flu not known, with 18,449 deaths confirmed by WHO but CDC
modelling estimating up to 575,400: deaths fram Ebola include both 2014-2016 outbreak ard ongoing outbreak in DRC

FIGURE 5: ESTIMATED COST OF MOST FATAL EMERGING ZOONOTIC DISEASES (1998-2020)
BENCHMARK

UK GDP

2,855
8,800

COVID-19 (GLOBAL, ESTIMATED)
SWINE FLU (GLOBAL) 50

ESTIMATED TOTAL COST (US$ BILLION)

SARS (GLOBAL) 42

WORST CASE ESTIMATE

AVIAN FLU (GLOBAL) 21
EBOLAVIRUS (GUINEA, SIERRA LEONE, LIBERIA) 9
MERS (SOUTH KOREA) 8
NIPAH VIRUS (MALAYSIA) 1

Sources: World Bank data: EcoHealth Alliance data: IMF/ADB estimates of COVID-19 economic impact
Note: MERS data for countries outside South Korea not available

Pandemics can threaten global and national peace
and security, increasing the urgency for public
institutions to address their drivers. Although the
COVID-19 crisis has resulted in short-term ceasefires in
some regions, tensions have escalated in other volatile areas.
As governments redeploy security personnel to tackle the
health crisis and foreign countries recall troops stationed
in-country, violent attacks by extremist groups in hotspots in
sub-Saharan Africa increased by 37 per cent between March
and April. In particular, Boko Haram launched the group's
deadliest attack against Chad's army since its insurgency
spread into Chad.110,111 The long-term political and economic
effects of pandemics may pose an even greater threat to
global stability. COVID-19 and the associated lockdown
measures threaten national stability, particularly in fragile
states, which already faced severe economic and political
instability prior to the pandemic.112 On the global stage,
geopolitical rivalries between countries are set to worsen,
as countries grapple with differing economic impacts of the
COVID-19 crisis.113
Moreover, pandemics can further endanger the
natural world, with environmental monitoring
and enforcement already suffering as a result of
COVID-19. In Brazil, the federal environmental agency
has announced cuts to enforcement duties, which include
protecting the Amazon from accelerating deforestation,
resulting in increased threats from illegal logging and
land conversion.114 The loss of the tourism sector is further
depleting funding for monitoring and enforcement in
protected and community conservation areas, resulting in
increases in encroachment, illegal logging, and poaching in
some areas.115,116,117 Further, pressures from the crisis have
led governments and companies to relax regulations and
sustainability efforts. The US Environmental Protection
Agency announced it would not enforce environmental

8,800

reporting requirements for those with a "COVID-related
justification.".118 Similarly, China has extended deadlines for
companies to meet environmental standards and delayed the
scheduled development of a large solar farm.119
The rapid spread of new zoonotic diseases also poses
a grave threat to wildlife and ecosystem dynamics.
Many endangered primates such as gorillas died during
numerous Ebola outbreaks in Gabon and the Democratic
Republic of the Congo between 1997 and 2004, with mortality
rates of up to 97 per cent in some gorilla populations.120
During avian flu outbreaks over recent decades, mass deaths
among wild birds from different species have been reported
around the world.121 Zoonotic disease outbreaks can damage
natural ecosystems, affecting prey populations, biodiversity,
and the delivery of ecosystem services.122
The same forces driving increased pandemics
are also furthering environmental degradation
through climate change and biodiversity loss. Food
and land-use systems currently cause up to 30 per cent of
total greenhouse gas emissions, contributing to climate
change.123,124 Widespread land conversion and deforestation
disrupts the vital role of ecosystems in capturing and storing
greenhouse gases. When forests are cleared or burned, they
release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, contributing to
rising global temperatures. Agricultural production processes
further contribute to global warming with high levels of
greenhouse gas emissions associated with fertilizer use,
energy consumption and livestock production.125 This in turn
creates further risks to human health, with climate change
set to increase deaths from heat strokes, malnutrition and
disease transmission.126 Over the coming decades, emissions
driven by food systems are predicted to increase, generating
further climate shifts and resulting in severe repercussions
for the health of both humans and nature.127

25



COVID-19 Report

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of COVID-19 Report

Contents
COVID-19 Report - 1
COVID-19 Report - 2
COVID-19 Report - Contents
COVID-19 Report - 4
COVID-19 Report - 5
COVID-19 Report - 6
COVID-19 Report - 7
COVID-19 Report - 8
COVID-19 Report - 9
COVID-19 Report - 10
COVID-19 Report - 11
COVID-19 Report - 12
COVID-19 Report - 13
COVID-19 Report - 14
COVID-19 Report - 15
COVID-19 Report - 16
COVID-19 Report - 17
COVID-19 Report - 18
COVID-19 Report - 19
COVID-19 Report - 20
COVID-19 Report - 21
COVID-19 Report - 22
COVID-19 Report - 23
COVID-19 Report - 24
COVID-19 Report - 25
COVID-19 Report - 26
COVID-19 Report - 27
COVID-19 Report - 28
COVID-19 Report - 29
COVID-19 Report - 30
COVID-19 Report - 31
COVID-19 Report - 32
COVID-19 Report - 33
COVID-19 Report - 34
COVID-19 Report - 35
COVID-19 Report - 36
COVID-19 Report - 37
COVID-19 Report - 38
COVID-19 Report - 39
COVID-19 Report - 40
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2022
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2021
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/tcops
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/60th_anniversary
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2020
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/freshwater_fishes_report
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/ghost_gear_report
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/covid19_report
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/livingplanet_summary
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/livingplanet_full
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/conversation_strategy
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2015
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2013
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/dalbergreport2013-de
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/dalbergreport2013-fr
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/dalbergreport2013
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwf_france/rapport_dactivite_2011-2012
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/wwfintl/annualreview2012
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com