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Alistipes
Alistipes spp. appear to impact neuropsychiatric mouse
models. Increased abundances have been correlated
with a low level of serotonin in the ileum in autistic
mice94 and the expression of depressive behaviour in
grid floor housed mice.95

Laboratory Animals 53(3)
in mice.115 Feeding B. fragilis to the maternal immune
activation mouse model of autism reduces symptoms,
which may be due to the normalization of one specific
gut metabolite, 4-ethylphenylsulfate.116 B. vulgatus
seems to enhance IBD in HLA-B27 transgenic rats117
and IL-10 knockout mice,118 and it increases in abundance in old mice.119

Akkermansia
Akkermansia muciniphila is the only well-described
member of the genus, and the only one observed in
rodents to date.96 It feeds on mucin in the gut.97 In
both humans and mice, if present in the colony, it constitutes 0.1-3% of the total gut microbiota, but it may
only be present in young mice.88 Its anti-inflammatory
potential is linked to the reduced incidence or severity
of disease, as in murine models for type 1 diabetes98,99
and diet-induced obesity,100 while it seems to have a coinducing impact on the development of azoxymethaneinduced colon tumours in mice.101 It is a potential
target of dietary intervention studies,102 for example
feeding with the popular prebiotic xylooligosaccharide
has been found to propagate A. muciniphila in mice.103
Therefore, it can be problematic to use mice from colonies free of A. muciniphila in studies of prebiotics.98

Faecalibacterium
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a clostridium-related
bacterium that is among the most abundant members
of the human gut microbiota, where it is an important
producer of butyrate and appears to play an important
role in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates.120,121
In mice, it reduces the severity of various models of
IBD, and it may be a key target in IBD intervention
studies.122-124 It is found spontaneously in some mouse
colonies,125 while it is absent in others.126 In addition,
other but less well-defined Clostridium spp. are known
to induce colonic regulatory T cells.115

Prevotella

Bifidobacterium spp. are anaerobic and frequently
branched bacteria, and are major members of the
colon microbiota of mammals.104 High abundances of
bifidobacteria are strongly correlated to low levels of
inflammation in mice89 and leptin in rats.105 They are
among the most popular probiotics for humans, and
mice are used for the development of them.106-108
Prebiotics tested in mice often act directly on the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp,89,109,110 and it is therefore
crucial that mice in such studies carry this organism.104

Gram-negative mostly anaerobic Prevotella spp. are
observed in the gastrointestinal tract, including the
oral cavity. P. copri may increase the severity of dextran
sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.127 The
lower response to DSS induction observed in
Caspase-3 knockout mice may be counteracted by
cohousing with wild type mice, which significantly
increases the abundance of Prevotella spp. in the
knockout mice.128 Tumour-bearing mice with azoxymethane/DSS-induced colorectal cancer may have
decreased abundances of Prevotellaceae,101 while a
high abundance of Prevotellaceae in the gut of leptindeficient obese mice correlates to an impaired glucose
tolerance.88

Bacteroides

Proteus

B. fragilis is normally considered a gut commensal, but
toxin-producing strains may be regarded as pathogenic,
for example they may induce colonic tumours in multiple intestinal neoplasia mice,111 and feeding gnotobiotic mice B. fragilis toxins causes symptoms of
diarrhoea.112 In contrast to this, the polysaccharide A
(PSA) from B. fragilis protects against Helicobacter
hepaticus-induced colitis in mice; most likely because
it prevents IL-17 secretion.113 Through its stimulation
of the dendritic cells, PSA is important for gut immune
maturation and the balance between T helper cells type
1 and 2, as well as for the gut response to pathogens.114
B. fragilis is also known to protect against intestinal
natural killer T cell-mediated oxazolone-induced colitis

Proteus mirabilis is a common inhabitant of the murine
gut. So far, it has been considered a commensal; however, it seems to increase in abundance in mouse models
of Parkinson's disease, and the transfer of P. mirabilis
isolated from such models to other mice damages dopaminergic neurons and motor functions.129

Bifidobacterium

SFBs (Candidatus Savagella)
SFB is a more popular term for the Clostridium cluster
I-related Candidatus Savagella. They are sometimes
wrongly referred to as Candidatus Arthromitus, but
these are Lachnospiraceae-related bacteria found in
arthropods and not in mammals.130 Species found in



Laboratory Animals - June Issue

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Laboratory Animals - June Issue

Contents
Laboratory Animals - June Issue - Cover1
Laboratory Animals - June Issue - Cover2
Laboratory Animals - June Issue - Contents
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