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´sume
´
Re
L'incidence mondiale de beaucoup de maladies d'origine immunitaire et me
´tabolique, y compris celles touchant l'intestin et le foie, augmente re
´gulie
`rement. Le microbiote intestinal joue un ro
ˆle central dans la
pathogene
`se de ces maladies car il transmet les modifications de l'environnement au syste
`me immunitaire
intestinal. Divers facteurs environnementaux, y compris le re
´gime alimentaire, les additifs alimentaires et les
me
´dicaments de
´clenchent e
´galement des alte
´rations de la composition et du fonctionnement du microbiote
intestinal, c.-a
`-d. une dysbiose, laquelle est e
´troitement associe
´e a
` de nombreuses maladies inflammatoires
chroniques. La relation de cause a
` effet reste toutefois peu claire pour la majorite
´ de ces maladies. Dans cet
examen, nous discutons des donne
´es e
´pide
´miologiques essentielles et des facteurs pathoge
`nes connus, y
compris ceux de nature ge
´ne
´tique et environnementale, tout en nous concentrant principalement sur le ro
ˆle
` l'aide
du microbiote intestinal dans le de
´veloppement de certaines maladies du foie et de l'intestin. A
d'exemples pre
´cis, nous de
´crivons e
´galement brie
`vement certains des mode
`les animaux les plus largement
utilise
´s, y compris les mode
`les gnotobiotiques, ainsi que leur contribution a
` la recherche des me
´canismes
pathoge
´niques de la relation ho
ˆte-microbiote.

Abstract
Viele immunvermittelte und Stoffwechselerkrankungen, einschließlich des Darms und der Leber, nehmen
weltweit stetig zu. Die intestinale Mikrobiota spielt eine zentrale Rolle bei der Pathogenese dieser
Krankheiten, da sie Umwelteinflu
¨sse an das Immunsystem des Darms vermittelt. Verschiedene Faktoren
wie Erna
¨hrung, Lebensmittelzusatzstoffe und Medikamente fu
¨hren auch zu Vera
¨nderungen von
Zusammensetzung und Funktion der Mikrobiota, d. h. zu einer Dysbiose. Diese Dysbiose ha
¨ngt eng mit
vielen chronisch-entzu
¨ndlichen Erkrankungen zusammen, doch der kausale Zusammenhang ist bei den
meisten dieser Krankheiten noch nicht vo
¨llig gekla
¨rt. In diesem Bericht diskutieren wir wesentliche epidemiologische Daten, bekannte pathogenetische Faktoren, einschließlich genetischer und Umweltfaktoren,
wobei wir uns hauptsa
¨chlich auf die Rolle der intestinalen Mikrobiota bei der Entstehung ausgewa
¨hlter
Darm- und Lebererkrankungen konzentrieren. Anhand konkreter Beispiele erla
¨utern wir auch kurz einige
der am meisten verwendeten Tiermodelle, darunter gnotobiotische Modelle und deren Beitrag zur
Erforschung pathogenetischer Mechanismen der Beziehung zwischen Wirt und Mikrobiota.

Abstract
La incidencia mundial de muchas enfermedades inmunitarias y metabo
´licas, incluidas las de los intestinos y
el hı´gado, aumenta constantemente. La microbiota intestinal desempen
´nesis
˜a un papel central en la patoge
de estas enfermedades, ya que media cambios ambientales en el sistema inmunitario intestinal. Varios
factores ambientales, como la dieta, los aditivos alimentarios y la medicacio
´n, tambie
´n desencadenan las
alteraciones compositivas y funcionales de la microbiota, es decir, la disbiosis, y esta disbiosis esta
´ estrechamente relacionada con muchas enfermedades inflamatorias cro
´nicas. Sin embargo, la relacio
´n causal
sigue sin estar clara para la mayorı´a de estas enfermedades. En esta revisio
´n, analizamos datos epidemiolo
´gicos esenciales, factores patoge
´nicos conocidos, incluidos los de naturaleza gene
´tica y ambiental, centra
´ndonos principalmente en el papel de la microbiota intestinal en el desarrollo de enfermedades
intestinales y hepa
´ticas seleccionadas. Mediante el uso de ejemplos especı´ficos, tambie
´n describimos brevemente algunos de los modelos animales ma
´s utilizados, incluidos los modelos gnotobio
´ticos y su contribucio
´n a la investigacio
´n de los mecanismos patoge
´nicos de la relacio
´n hue
´sped-microbiota.



Laboratory Animals - June Issue

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Laboratory Animals - June Issue

Contents
Laboratory Animals - June Issue - Cover1
Laboratory Animals - June Issue - Cover2
Laboratory Animals - June Issue - Contents
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