In Broadcast - April 2021 - 58

58

www.inbroadcast.com | Vol: 11 - Issue 4 | April 2021

InMedia

Moving Live Production
to The Cloud

same switching, the same standard IT
architectures.
For just about any piece of kit
you could need in a TV facility multiviewers, cameras, replay systems
- there are solutions available whose
primary interface is ST 2110.

We're now at point where live production is entirely
possible in the cloud. Any questions?

L

ive production is the highest stress,
highest
anxiety
environment
in media and entertainment. Even
with the highest budget feature film
a director at least has the luxury of
retakes. When you are live on air there
is no going back. 'We'll fix it in post' is
not an option. Produced in realtime,
the show must go on.
Live is also a highly complicated
system involving multiple elements
from best of breed vendors ranging
from graphics and replay systems to
slo-motion, VFX, DVEs and the mixing
of external live sources. Typically, the
production requires a control room full
of people in a bricks and mortar facility
or an OB truck. There are racks of gear
and miles of cable. You can configure it
to some degree by assigning different
signal paths to the routing fabric but
once built it stays wired handicapping
the ability of the broadcaster to
respond to changing business needs.
All of this is now evolving into the
cloud which fundamentally changes
the nature of everything at the same
time as not changing the fundamentals
of live production at all.
To unpick that conundrum, let's take
a minute to examine the evolution of
live production into the cloud.

The evolution of live
To build your show, you start from
various camera sources. These are
ingested into your studio facility for
the application of various processes:
live switching, replay, slo-mo and
graphics being some. The entire
production in the control room is
centred on a multiviewer which offers
a series of visual and monitoring
solutions to aid the director and vision
mixer, the video operations team, for
camera shading, replay ops, audio
mixer, producers and so on.
Broadly speaking this live production
architecture hasn't changed for years
and doesn't have to change as we
move to cloud. So why move to cloud
at all?
Cloud computing is essentially the
use of remote computing resource to
store, manage and process data rather
than use a local (on-prem) hardware.

The advantages this brings to media
production as a whole, and live in
particular, are clear and multi-faceted.
Broadcasters and media service
providers want to move into the
cloud for flexibility and speed. In
order to provide services that spin
up and down the underlying model
needs to be usage based. The long
integration lead time of on-prem
solutions, involving capital approval
cycles and slow software deployment,
is an impediment to providing the
agility needed today to meet rapidly
changing business requirements and
opportunities.
On-premises live production systems
are expensive and are often used only
a fraction of the day. Media companies
had been moving to a remote
production or REMI model the past few
years to improve the ROI on this CAPEX
investment and improve on staff
productivity. With COVID, having these
large production teams working in the
same control room became unfeasible,
and remote distributed production
with an at-home workforce became
essential. With everyone working in
this distributed environment, the cloud
was a natural fit. It avoided the risks
of all the feeds being home-run to a
single facility with limited staffing and
resilience and allowed the production
system to be scaled to the event's
requirements.
Being able to scale the system size
to the event requirements created
operational efficiency. For the first
time with the shift from CAPEX to
OPEX in the cloud, the true costs of the
underlying production system could
be attributed to the event. It is this
deterministic behaviour of systems
in a cloud environment that means
broadcasters can finally predict exactly
what operating a service, or launching
a new one will cost, and drives
operations to manage these costs
more effectively than before
Add to that a microservices approach
to development and deployment and
broadcasters can upgrade equipment
and introduce new features far faster,
more economically and more flexibly
than before.

Mezzanine compression to cloud

The value of ST 2110
From the analogue era through SDI
live production has used baseband
video and baseband audio simply
because it's the highest quality. It
gives the best production tool to work
with so we don't have to go through
generations of processing. It's also the
lowest latency because in live you want
to interact with your studio and your
performers. None of this changes in
the move to IP.
SMPTE standard ST 2110, for which
SMPTE and co-developers VSF, EBU
and AMWA have been awarded a
Technical Emmy, mirrors SDI in
providing for uncompressed video and
precision timing.
With ST 2110, you can do everything
from SD all the way up to 8K RGB 12bit uncompressed, and the standard
even supports signals up to 32K x 32K
for the future. Regardless of resolution
or other signal characteristics, you
are using the same protocols, the

ST 2110 is built around the notion
that bandwidth is free and cheap on
campus but to get to and from the
cloud, and especially for any form of
remote distributed live production,
a form of mezzanine compression
is used. Mezzanine is a lightweight
compression that squeezes the bits
sufficiently to save you bandwidth but
not hard enough to destroy the quality
needed for picture manipulation, like
chroma keying, in the production
process. The leading schemes are JPEG
2000 (J2K) and JPEG XS. The latter
exhibits extremely low latency which is
important for live. With detailed specs
for mapping JPEG XS into a 2110-22
ecosystem now complete, vendors are
adding JPEG XS capability to product.
Mezzanine encoding and decoding
is part of the suite of core services
required for live production that can
be hosted in the cloud today. Format
conversion, reliable secure transport,
multiviewing and probing, the
production switcher, CG and playout
are also primed for cloud. Other
applications such as replay systems,
slo-motion, intercom, even lighting
control and the CCU will all, eventually,
be available as a-service.
Some of these applications can be
bought from the cloud vendor to drag
and drop into your design in the cloud.
Other pieces, such as the production
switcher, playout and multiviewer are
highly specialised and will likely come
from best of breed developers. Even
with the recent emergence of fully
integrated live production systems in
the cloud, the complexities of many
live productions will require additional
components and services to be added
to support the required workflows.

Cloud Benefits
The important thing is that the
functionality of this equipment and
how the content flows from ingest
through production to output doesn't
fundamentally change. But with
an architecture underpinned by IP
and cloud the business benefits are
transformed.


http://www.inbroadcast.com https://www.tagvs.com https://www.tagvs.com

In Broadcast - April 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of In Broadcast - April 2021

Contents
In Broadcast - April 2021 - Intro
In Broadcast - April 2021 - Cover1
In Broadcast - April 2021 - Cover2
In Broadcast - April 2021 - Contents
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 4
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 5
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 6
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 7
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 8
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 9
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 10
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 11
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 12
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 13
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 14
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 15
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 16
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 17
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 18
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 19
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 20
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 21
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 22
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 23
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 24
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 25
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 26
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 27
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 28
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 29
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 30
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 31
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 32
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 33
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 34
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 35
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 36
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 37
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 38
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 39
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 40
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 41
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 42
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 43
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 44
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 45
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 46
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 47
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 48
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 49
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 50
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 51
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 52
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 53
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 54
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 55
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 56
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 57
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 58
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 59
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 60
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 61
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 62
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 63
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 64
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 65
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 66
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 67
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 68
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 69
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 70
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 71
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 72
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 73
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 74
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 75
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 76
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 77
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 78
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 79
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 80
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 81
In Broadcast - April 2021 - 82
In Broadcast - April 2021 - Cover4
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202110
https://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202109
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202108
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202107
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202106
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202105
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_PTZ
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202104
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202103
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202102
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202101
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202012
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202011
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202010
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202009
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202008
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202007
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202006
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202005
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202004
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202003
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202002
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202001
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_INREVIEW2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201912
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201911
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NewYork2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201910
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201909
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_inshowguide2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201908
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/CTA-DAY3
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/CTA-DAY2
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/CTA-DAY1
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/CTA-VISITOR
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201906
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/CTA-PREVIEW
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201905
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201904
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201903
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201902
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201901
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_INREVIEW2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201812
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201811
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NewYork2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201810
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_inshowguide2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201809
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201808
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201806
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201805
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201804
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201803
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201802
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201801
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201712
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201711
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201710
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOWNYexpo2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201709
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_inshowguide2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201708
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201707
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201705
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201704
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201703
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201702
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201701
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_INREVIEW2016
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201611
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOWNYexpo
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_20110708_DEMO
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201610
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_inshowguide2016
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201609
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201608
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201607
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201606
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/lesommet/inbroadcast_APAC03
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201605
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2016
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201604
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201603
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201602
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201601
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/lesommet/inbroadcast_APAC02
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201512
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201511
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_CCW15expo
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201510
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/lesommet/inbroadcast_APAC01
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201509
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_IBC2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201508
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201507
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201506
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_BROADCASTASIA2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201505
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201504
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201503
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201502
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201501
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201411
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201410
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201409
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcastIBCPRINTEDGUIDE_201409
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201408
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201407
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201406
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201405
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201404
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201403
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201402
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201401
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201312
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201311
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201310
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201309
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201308
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201307
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201306
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201305
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201304
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201303
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201302
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201301
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201211
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201210
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201209
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201208
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201207
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201206
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201205
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201204
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201203
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201202
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_20121201
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_20111011
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_20110708
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_20110506
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com