In Broadcast - August 2019 - 55

55

www.inbroadcast.com | Vol: 9 - Issue 7 | August 2019

Performance Monitoring in
ABR Delivery Systems

InFile

cont'd...

is important, as many issues in
networks are transient in nature.
*	 ISO/IEC
23009-1:2014/
AMD2:2015, "Information technology
- Dynamic adaptive streaming
over HTTP (DASH) - Part 1: Media
presentation description and segment
formats". This establishes the client
metrics model, including such metrics
as HTTP request/response timing,
response codes and throughput, buffer
occupancy levels and representation
switch events.
*	 Streaming
Video
Alliance's
QoE Industry Guidelines, May 2016,
"Key Network Delivery Metrics". This
suggests and defines metrics to be
gathered in the player itself. Chief
amongst those are video startup time
(measured in seconds), rebuffering
time (measured as a percentage of the
total playback duration of the media)
and average media bit rate (through
the entire playback.)
Types of Monitoring Probes
There are basically two types of
monitors deployed in ABR delivery
- Passive Probes and Active Probes.
It should be noted that a probe may
take the form of a physical appliance
or - more commonly these days - as
software applications running on a
server somewhere in the network.
Software probes have obvious
advantages - they are portable, which
means they can be located anywhere
in the network. Subject to licensing,
they can be replicated at will - which
makes them ideal for use in data
centres and cloud deployments. In
almost all cases, both sets of probes
are used in instrumenting an entire
network. In each case, the probes can
be used 24/7, or scheduled to run at
specific times of the day.
Passive Probes: A passive probe or
agent identifies, and tracks, metrics
associated with client/server sessions.

This analysis is performed by passively
tapping the network and deriving
session performance by examining
packets associated with a particular
session, their arrival times, and other
media and control payload information
gleaned from deep packet inspection
(DPI).
Active Probes: Active probes
emulate an actual end-user client
and analyses the received packets
for arrival times as well as the
received media and control payload
information. Active probes also verify
that all content is available to be
requested by real users even if those
users are not currently accessing that
information. This is especially valuable
as it ensures that all bit rate variants
of all programs are available to clients
for dynamic bit rate adaptation (even
though any particular session may
only use one or a small fraction of the
variants available). Active probing is
an essential part of any initial testing
prior to an event, to minimise loadbased issues at run time.
Figure 2 shows a summary of some
of the key metrics monitored in an
end-to-end ABR stream monitoring.
Monitoring Provides
Real-World Solutions
Let's return to the three real-world
examples quoted at the start of this
article to see how monitoring allowed
media distributors to diagnose ABR
delivery issues.
*	 Example 1: Passive monitoring
showed that all end-user traffic was
being supplied from a single cache
node due to a DNS issue. So all media
requests were routed to a single cache
server which, in turn, resulted in the
origin server requests originating
from only one cache. This cache server
oversubscription was the reason for
the poor performance many clients
were experiencing. Fixing the DNS

Figure 3: Operational intelligence for ABR distribution

problem
restored
normal operation while the event was
still taking place.
*	 Example
2:
Passive
monitoring
showed
that
the
Whitepaper: ABR Quality Monitoring: State of the Art
particular
game
console in question was only caching Conclusion
one segment at a time. This led to
More than simply evaluating a
frequent buffer underflows causing viewer's experience quality level, a
the frequent rebuffering events major objective of monitoring should
and playback stalls. Once this was be to obtain actionable distribution
determined, a fix could be put in place.
measurements. This means that
*	 Example 3: Passive monitoring not only is the end viewer's quality
in the CDN proved that the supposed assessed, but information on the
excessively long response time from causes of a low QoS/QoE incident can
the supplier's origin server was not be gathered enabling a provider to
actually the case, and instead pointed take remedial action preferably in near
to CDN issues.
real-time. At a minimum, there must
There are, of course, many examples be enough data to remediate with
of the use of active probes https:// certainty as opposed to speculation.
bit.ly/2J9l0kB to stress-test (and
For more information, please refer to
break) network configurations prior the white paper from the ABR Quality
to the actual date of the event, which Monitoring: State of the Art SMPTE
were then fixed before they became paper presentation by Jim Welch,
problems for real clients. Click Figure Telestream (Presented at 2018 Annual
3 to see more info on operational Technical Conference in Los Angeles,
intelligence for ABR distribution.
CA).

Fujifilm And Sony
License LTO-8

F

ujifilm and Sony have licensed
Generation 8 technology which
suggests that both companies are
planning to produce LTO-8 media.
Products from these two companies
will be officially certified by the
Technology Provider Companies
(TPCs), with global availability of
Generation 8 media anticipated in
fourth quarter 2019.
"We are pleased to have two
licensees for tape solutions allowing
us to deliver more product to market,
and enabling us to once again provide
tape technology solutions, including
LTO generation 8, to our partners
and end-users," said Eric Bassier,
Senior Director, Quantum. "As part of
the LTO Program, we look forward to
continuing to grow tape technology
capabilities to meet the growing
demands of data storage and
long-term data retention."
Claiming up to 30TB of
compressed capacity and up
to 750 MB/s data transfer

rates, LTO Generation 8 pushes
innovation as the latest in tape
technology.
The LTO Program Technology
Provider Companies (TPCs) are
Hewlett Packard Enterprise, IBM
Corporation and Quantum.
LTO technology continues to see
increased relevance across industries
due to the need to house massive
amounts of "cold" data.
There is also the need to keep
a safety copy of important data
"offline" to mitigate the threat posed
by malware.
Tape uniquely offers offline
protection by providing an air gap
between the tape media and the
computer systems - preventing
systems, hackers and malware from
accessing it.


http://www.inbroadcast.com https://pages.telestream.net/smpte_abr_ib https://www.bit.ly/2J9l0kB https://www.bit.ly/2J9l0kB http://primary.telestream.net/pdfs/iq/solution-briefs/IQ-OPS.pdf https://www.lto.org/

In Broadcast - August 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of In Broadcast - August 2019

Contents
In Broadcast - August 2019 - Intro
In Broadcast - August 2019 - Cover1
In Broadcast - August 2019 - Cover2
In Broadcast - August 2019 - Contents
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 4
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 5
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 6
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 7
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 8
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 9
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 10
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 11
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 12
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 13
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 14
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 15
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 16
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 17
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 18
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 19
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 20
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 21
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 22
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 23
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 24
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 25
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 26
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 27
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 28
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 29
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 30
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 31
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 32
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 33
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 34
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 35
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 36
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 37
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 38
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 39
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 40
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 41
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 42
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 43
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 44
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 45
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 46
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 47
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 48
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 49
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 50
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 51
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 52
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 53
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 54
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 55
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 56
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 57
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 58
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 59
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 60
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 61
In Broadcast - August 2019 - 62
In Broadcast - August 2019 - Cover3
In Broadcast - August 2019 - Cover4
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202102
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202101
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202012
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202011
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202010
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202009
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202008
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202007
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202006
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202005
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202004
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202003
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202002
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_202001
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_INREVIEW2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201912
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201911
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NewYork2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201910
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201909
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_inshowguide2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201908
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/CTA-DAY3
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/CTA-DAY2
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/CTA-DAY1
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/CTA-VISITOR
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201906
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/CTA-PREVIEW
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201905
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201904
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201903
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2019
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201902
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201901
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_INREVIEW2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201812
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201811
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NewYork2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201810
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_inshowguide2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201809
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201808
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201806
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201805
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201804
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201803
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201802
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201801
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201712
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201711
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201710
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOWNYexpo2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201709
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_inshowguide2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201708
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201707
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201705
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201704
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201703
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201702
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201701
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_INREVIEW2016
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201611
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOWNYexpo
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_20110708_DEMO
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201610
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_inshowguide2016
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201609
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201608
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201607
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201606
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/lesommet/inbroadcast_APAC03
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201605
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2016
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201604
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201603
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201602
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201601
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/lesommet/inbroadcast_APAC02
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201512
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201511
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_CCW15expo
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201510
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/lesommet/inbroadcast_APAC01
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201509
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_IBC2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201508
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201507
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201506
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_BROADCASTASIA2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201505
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201504
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201503
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201502
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201501
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201411
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201410
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201409
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcastIBCPRINTEDGUIDE_201409
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201408
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201407
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201406
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201405
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201404
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201403
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201402
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201401
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201312
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201311
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201310
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201309
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201308
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201307
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201306
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201305
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201304
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201303
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201302
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201301
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201211
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201210
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201209
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201208
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201207
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201206
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201205
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201204
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201203
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201202
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_20121201
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_20111011
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_20110708
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_20110506
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com