In Broadcast - January 2018 - 48

48 | Vol: 8 - Issue 1 | January 2018


OTT Trends - Part I
According to Contributing Editor Adrian Pennington, three trends dominate the online video
landscape leading into 2018: solid IP production standards, cross media ad measurement,
and delivering quality live streams at scale...
IP Strengthened By Standards
Right at the end of last year,
SMPTE published the first of several
documents relating to the standard
ST 2110 for professional media over
managed networks.
The impact goes beyond just
replacing serial digital interface (SDI)
with IP to the concept of having the
flexibility to come up with a whole
new set of applications based on,
and leveraged off, IT protocols and
ST 2110 is a suite of tools which
address uncompressed video and
audio streams and which specify
traffic shaping and delivery timing of
uncompressed video.
Still in the process of ratification
is the portion of the standard
concerning metadata such as captions,
subtitles, active format description,
timecodes, dynamic range, and more.
This is undergoing final committee
draft ballot and is anticipated to be
published early in 2018.
Additional parts of the suite, such
as support for compressed audio and
video, will follow a similar process and
will likely be published in time for NAB
at the end of April.
According to lobbying group
AIMS, the SDI-to-IP bridging support
provided by SMPTE ST 2110, means
broadcasters can take an incremental
approach by building new islands
of IP operations while continuing to

rely on legacy equipment elsewhere.
Alternatively, they can start out
by building IP-based facilities as
replacements to the resources they've
allocated for redundancy, which they
can switch to for primary operations
once they're satisfied everything
works as expected. And when they find
themselves in green-field situations
with no existing SDI facilities, they
can build all-IP infrastructures from
AIMS' guidance begins with the
factors that must be taken into
account when implementing IP-based
production in the simplest standalone
studios and self-contained production
trucks. It outlines a plan for more
complex situations where productions
are executed across multiple locations
in a LAN-linked campus environment.
The additional complexity of designing
an IP topology where multiple facilities
are linked over distances of 2km or
more is also clarified.
For example, even in cases where a
broadcaster has already committed to
installing SDI-based UHD equipment,
use of IP gateways to consolidate the
quad-interface outputs for delivery
over IP connections within that facility
is well advised.
migration from legacy to IP are Grass
Valley's latest K-Frame X switcher and
Quantum's new Xcellis Scale-out NAS
platform. Ross Video's production

Grass Valley's
K-Frame X

switchers Carbonite and Acuity also
deliver AIMS-compliant support for
SMPTE ST 2110 and ST 2022-6.
The addition of native IP support for
Acuity, the company's most powerful
production switcher, and Carbonite
Black, a popular mid-size production
switcher mean both products will
seamlessly interface to standardsbased SMPTE ST 2110 and ST 2022-6
infrastructures, making them ideal for
customers planning COTS-based AIMScompliant IP facilities.
Production Switchers and Video
Servers, says Ross Video are able to
mix and match IP and SDI interfaces,
so each switcher may be used
to connect directly to legacy SDI
equipment as required, making it ideal
for hybrid installations.
The AIMS agenda does not end
with SMPTE ST 2110. The latest
objective provides a common means
of identifying and registering devices
across all workflows and
locations based on the Network
(NMOS) IS-04 developed by
the Advanced Media Workflow
Association (AMWA).
It's important to recognise
that, no matter where a
broadcaster is in its decision
to move to IP, the industry has

achieved consensus on a foundation
to interoperability. This should allow
broadcasters to move forward with
implementation of IP-based production
at whatever pace suits their needs.
Overcoming Network Congestion
Failing to deliver live-streaming
premium events to large-scale
audiences can be a knock-out blow for
operators. It is inherently difficult and
notoriously unpredictable.
In recent research, Limelight
Networks highlighted that video
rebuffering (when the video pauses
during playback so it can reload) is the
most frustrating aspect for consumers
of online video viewing, globally. This
was followed by poor quality video
(when users have to wait for the video
to start playing, and when the video
is unavailable on the user's device).
When a video stops and rebuffers
during playback, 21.6% of people
worldwide will stop watching. If a
video rebuffers twice, more than 61%
will stop watching. And when a video
rebuffers three times, 84.7% of the
audience is lost - only 15.3% of viewers
will continue watching.
"Buffering is always an issue for
people watching live events. In fact,
that's why HTTP-based (HLS and
MPEG-DASH) live streaming was
created - to create a buffer-less

Ross Video's native-IP Carbonite and Acuity production switchers

IP migration: Xcellis Scale-out-NAS

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of In Broadcast - January 2018