In Broadcast - July 2012 - 65


ISSUE 10 - JULY 2012 | WWW.INBROADCAST.COM

InFORM Subtitling Explained
By Henrik Moberg, Managing Director, Cavena Image Products
When it comes to television access, subtitling is very important. It is utilised for two main reasons - to make foreign language material accessible, and to aid hearingimpaired people. Translation subtitling allows a broadcaster to reach multiple language target audiences, which makes it ideal for targeting multiple language groups. The viewer can select the language to receive. For hearing-impaired people, subtitling allows them to follow television, and is a legal requirement in many countries. The advantage of subtitling over dubbing is cost. Subtitling is much cheaper per language to produce than alternative language audio tracks. Also, a new subtitling language can easily be added whenever needed, even after material preparation is done. Subtitling is not an exact translation, because differences between languages often require additional information to understand the original content. Subtitling often compresses the language to fit the dialogue into as little text as possible, to avoid distracting the viewer.
Henrik Moberg

Subtitling Workflow
Subtitling comprises two stages preparation and transmission. The preparation of the subtitle files, along with the timecode required to synchronise the subtitle with the video, is done ahead of transmission. These are delivered to the transmission site in a format defined by the broadcaster, and stored until needed for transmission. Subtitle transmission is an automated process. The equipment interfaces to station planning and automation systems to receive programme and trigger information. The transmission units then synchronise the subtitles for playout using the video timecode. Subtitles are output in suitable formats for the transmission platform. There are two types of subtitling - open and closed. Open subtitling is visible to all viewers, typically for translations of foreign language material. This is useful for national broadcasters that broadcast foreign material. Open subtitling uses a dedicated inserter for overlaying subtitles in the video signal, so the

subtitling is always visible. Closed subtitling is transmitted as separate data in the transmission, so is ideal for multilingual subtitling and subtitling for the hearing impaired. DVB subtitling and EBU teletext transmission formats are common, which is decoded and inserted into the picture at head ends or set-top boxes. DVB subtitling is bitmap based, so font and appearance is defined by the broadcaster. EBU teletext is character based, and therefore relies on the decoder’s character generator for appearance, so is limited to teletext character sets. Transcoding can be reading subtitles in VBI format and instantaneously converting and re-sending subtitles in DVB format, with no dependence on timecode. Cavena has this solution integrated as part of its transmission products and can switch between timecoded subtitle file playout, and transcoding from one subtitling format into another. Live subtitling is also supported. The required equipment depends on what is, or is to be, installed, and the technology used for distribution of TV and subtitles. At the playout centre, the key subtitle components are: • Storage, QC check and archiving with Cavena SAM; • Transmission control and automation interface with Cavena STC; • Playout of subtitles with Cavena STU; • SDI subtitle insertion with Cavena Cimpress. Cavena specialises in subtitling, and has assisted many customers in the design and configuration of cost effective subtitling solutions, including back up installations. Timecode or transcode? Cavena can assist with the answers. ■

65

Cavena at work


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of In Broadcast - July 2012

In Broadcast - July 2012
InNEWS
InREVIEW: BroadcastAsia Highlights
InSPORT: London Games Infrastructure
InVIEW: Fibre Optic Technology
InSOUND: What’s New In Audio Mixing
InSOUND: DIGICO RELEASE CONSOLES RANGE
InMEDIA: Automation Innovations
InMEDIA CLASS: RELIABLE APPROACH TO WORKFLOWS
InMEDIA: MARSHALLING MODERN BROADCAST OPERATIONS
InTECH: SATELLITE UPLINKS: FAR FROM STATIC
InTECH: EUROVISION SUCCESS FOR RIEDEL MEDIORNET
InFORM: MISTIKA POWERS NIKE’S 2D INTERACTIVE ADVERT
InFORM: SUBTITLING EXPLAINED
InGEAR: RYCOTE EXPANDS MICROPHONE SOLUTIONS
In Broadcast - July 2012 - In Broadcast - July 2012
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 2
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 3
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InNEWS
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 5
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 6
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 7
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 8
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 9
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 10
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 11
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 12
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 13
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 14
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 15
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 16
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 17
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 18
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 19
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 20
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 21
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InREVIEW: BroadcastAsia Highlights
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 23
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InSPORT: London Games Infrastructure
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 25
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 26
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 27
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InVIEW: Fibre Optic Technology
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 29
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 30
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 31
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InSOUND: What’s New In Audio Mixing
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 33
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 34
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 35
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 36
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 37
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InSOUND: DIGICO RELEASE CONSOLES RANGE
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 39
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 40
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 41
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InMEDIA: Automation Innovations
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 43
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 44
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 45
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 46
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 47
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InMEDIA CLASS: RELIABLE APPROACH TO WORKFLOWS
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 49
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 50
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 51
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 52
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 53
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InMEDIA: MARSHALLING MODERN BROADCAST OPERATIONS
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 55
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 56
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 57
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InTECH: SATELLITE UPLINKS: FAR FROM STATIC
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 59
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 60
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 61
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InTECH: EUROVISION SUCCESS FOR RIEDEL MEDIORNET
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 63
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InFORM: MISTIKA POWERS NIKE’S 2D INTERACTIVE ADVERT
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InFORM: SUBTITLING EXPLAINED
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 66
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 67
In Broadcast - July 2012 - InGEAR: RYCOTE EXPANDS MICROPHONE SOLUTIONS
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 69
In Broadcast - July 2012 - 70
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http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NewYork2018
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http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201803
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http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2018
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201801
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201712
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http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201710
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOWNYexpo2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201709
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_inshowguide2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201708
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201707
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201705
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201704
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2017
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201703
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201702
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201701
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_INREVIEW2016
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201612
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201611
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOWNYexpo
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_20110708_DEMO
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201610
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_inshowguide2016
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201609
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201608
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201607
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201606
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/lesommet/inbroadcast_APAC03
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201605
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2016
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201604
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201603
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2016
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201602
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201601
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/lesommet/inbroadcast_APAC02
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201512
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201511
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_CCW15expo
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201510
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/lesommet/inbroadcast_APAC01
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201509
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_IBC2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201508
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201507
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201506
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_BROADCASTASIA2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201505
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201504
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_NABSHOW2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201503
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_cabsat2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201502
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201501
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201412
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201411
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201410
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201409
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcastIBCPRINTEDGUIDE_201409
http://europe.nxtbook.com/nxteu/lesommet/inbroadcast_201408
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